Getting-Started with Command Line on Xubuntu Linux
The Linux Tutorial Shows You How to Quick Start with the Command Line Console Terminal for Xubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr LTS Linux.
This is Just a ‘Quick and Dirty’ Introduction to the Command Line Basics by Example on Linux Command Line Console Terminal.
The Tutorial is Step-by-Step and You Can Just Getting-Started Following and Executing each Command without any Harm for Your System :).
After all only ‘Practice Makes the Master‘; so Do Not try to Getting-Started too Hard but Just ‘Take it Easy!‘ ;).
The Commands are Intended for Execution the Default Bash Linux Shell but Most should Works also for the Bourne, C, TC and Korn Shells…
First Initiation is to Open a Command Line Terminal Session
Or: Cmd/Win and Search ‘terminal’
Press “Enter” to Execute Commands on Console
To List a Directory Content (Directories and Files included)
For Example to List the Content of the Root Directory:
Or to List the Content of the Home Directory:
Next practice the Change of Directory
Change to the Root Directory:
* Again find out how ‘cd‘ is an Abridgement for ‘Change Directory‘ *
Then Go to /usr/bin:
Now to Navigate to the Parent Use the ‘..‘!
So Back to the root with:
(It’s like to say: ‘One Step Back and then One Step Back’ again)
Finally, to Return Home is simple as:
Then to Verify you are in that Location Use:
In this case ‘pwd’ is a Shortcut for ‘Print Working Directory‘.
Hey Congratulations! You achieved the First Walk into the Linux Directory Tree :)
Furthermore, about Linux Terminology, there are 3 different Entities Appelled as ‘Root’:
- The System’s root: /
- The root Directory: /root
- The root User: the SuperAdmin than can Execute Any Command
Again experiment the Creative powers
With a test Directory like:
* See here again how ‘mkdir‘ is an Abbreviation for ‘Make Directory‘ *.
How you should have already understood, $HOME and ‘~‘ are both synonymous of your’s Home Folder.
And the Home Directory is where your’s User Contents are Stored by Default.
Moreover, to enhance your Memorization and Fun I rightly Use some Metaphoric term. So here you can Immagine a directory like a Room into your Home :).
Try Making Multiple Directories at once with:
mkdir $HOME/bedroom $HOME/bathroom $HOME/garden
Finally, use the ‘touch‘ Command to Make a New Empty File:
And how you could already have perceived I Make Use Here of the following Mnemonic Linking:
Directory -> Spatial Entity
File -> Thing
And so in the Previous Command to an ‘Empty File’ corresponds an ‘Empty Thing’ like a ‘box’ ;)
5. Copying Stuff
Experiment How to Copy Directories and Files.
To Copy a Single File:
* As in the other cases here ‘cp‘ is the Abbreviation for ‘Copy‘ *
cp $HOME/livingroom/box $HOME/bedroom/
You see how in this Example we moved our ‘box’ from the ‘livingroom’ to the ‘bedroom’ :)
Now verify the correctness of the operation Listing your’s bedroom contents:
And the Output will exactly display as:
Now for Instance to Copy a Single Directory inside to another do:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/garden
List the ‘garden’ contents:
And you’ll Find:
Now you have also a ‘livingroom’ copy into your ‘garden’ O:
Moreover to Copy-Duplicate-Rename a Directory:
First to be sure you are again into the $HOME area:
And then Make a newly duplicated room do:
cp -r ./livingroom ./room
Finally, to Copy-Displace-Rename at the same time:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/bedroom/wardrobe
But this is Magically Crazy, we have trasformed our ‘livingroom’ into a ‘wardrobe’ inside to the ‘bedroom’ :))
6. Moving Stuff
Next Experiments the Dynamics of Files and Directories
And in this Moving dimension Files or Directories are taken as the Same.
* Again you find here the ‘mv‘ Command as a Contraction of ‘Move‘ *
So now for instance Make and Empty ‘bottle’:
And then we Displace it in another Room:
mv ~/livingroom/bottle ~/bedroom/
Then verify Listing the ‘bedroom’ contents:
And what you Find? The:
Also if only an empty one, sorry :))
Again you can Move & Rename at the same time like:
mv ~/bedroom/bottle ~/bathroom/can
Here we have magically trasformed an empty ‘bottle’ inside the ‘bedroom’ in an empty ‘can’ inside to the ‘bathroom’.
And as I said in the introduction the Command for Directories works the Same!
So now ‘Like Alice in the Wonderland’ we Move the Directory ‘livingroom’ we set into the ‘garden’ in a ‘teapot’ in the bedroom!
mv ~/garden/livingroom ~/bedroom/teapot
Patiently Verify it with:
Simple :) An Empty Space!
Finally, we try investigating our Magical Destroying Powers
Deleting Directories and Files!.
Especially Releant: in Normal Activity you should Triple Check the Commands Before Execution…
As in Shell there’s Not a Trash Bin and so the stuff is directly Annihilated!!!.
* As in all other cases also ‘Remove‘ is here Abreviated by ‘rm‘ *
How Removing Files.
First we Wipe Out the ‘box’ in the ‘livingroom’ with:
Check it with:
Now we try the same for Multiple Entities…
First we Make a Copy of the ‘can’ into then ‘bathroom’ in a ‘jar’ into the ‘bedroom’, always Magics Here ;) with:
cp $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
And then how to Liquidate Both? Simply like that:
rm $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
How Removing Directories.
Now we Start to Hollow our beautiful Home… ((:
First we Raze the ‘livingroom’:
rm -rf $HOME/livingroom
And finally we Desert All the Remaining Spaces:
rm -rf ~/bathroom ~/bedroom ~/garden
Sorry, we Transformed our Home into a Blank Space, but What a Fun! :))
8. Getting Admin Power
Last How to Get the Admin Super-Powers.
To Login as SuperUser:
If Got “User is Not in Sudoers file” then see: How to Enable sudo
Then to Logout:
(To Protect Your System from the potential Damages of an Hazardous ‘Crazy’ Command Execution the Logout ‘Should’ be Executed Every Time a Conscious and Meaningful Series of Commands has been Achieved… )
Finally, to Execute a Single Command as SuperUser:
sudo su -c 'myCommand'
How to Set Permissions on Xubuntu File SystemXubuntu Permissions Quick Start
Here is achieved the ‘Quick&Dirty’ Initiation to the Xubuntu Linux Command Line Sphere :)
I’ll be Back Very Soon to Show the Basics of the Apt Software Packages and Repository Administration Commands!
Tags: basic linux commands, Command line, Console, Getting Started, Guide, How-to, Linux, linux command line, linux console, linux terminal, Linux Tutorial, Quick Start, Terminal, Tutorial, Xubuntu, xubuntu command line, xubuntu linux, xubuntu terminal