Debian Terminal Tutorial for Beginners
Welcome Debian User! The Tutorial Presents You a Step-by-Step Debian Terminal Tutorial for Beginners.
And with this Debian Command Line Tutorial for Beginners You Can Get Easily Initiated to Make the First Steps on the Linux Shell :)
Especially relevant how this is Just a ‘Quick and Dirty’ Introduction to the Command Line Basics by Example on the Console/Terminal Bash Shell emulator.
Now I Recommend you to ‘Take it Easy‘ and keep on experimenting because only ‘Practice Makes the Master‘ ;)
Most noteworthy: it’s fundamental you ‘Get Your Hands Dirty‘ following along this guide and Execute the Commands as they are harmless for your System.
Furthrmore the Commands are Intended for Execution the Default Bash Linux Shell but Most should Works also for the Bourne, C, TC and Korn Shells…
Finally on bottom included instruction on How to Getting Started Install New Packages for Debian Linux.
How to Open Terminal on Linux Debian DesktopsSee How Open Terminal Debian
Now try to List the Directory’s Contents
To List the Directory you are in execute:
The ‘.’ is meaning This location.
* And see ‘ls‘ as an Abbreviation of ‘listing‘ *
The Output on a New Terminal window should be very similar to this:
Desktop/ Downloads/ Pictures/ tmp/ Documents/ Music/ Templates/ Videos/
Here the Entities with a Trailing Slash are Directories.
Again execute to List the Downloads Folder on your Home:
Next to List the Main System’s Root Directory:
(The Root of What? Of the System’s Directory Tree.)
Furthermore to List the usr Directory:
Finally to List the Nested bin Directory into the usr one:
Next practice the Change Directory directive
Change to the Root Directory:
* Again find out how ‘cd‘ is an Abridgement of ‘changing directory‘ *
Then Go to /usr/bin:
Now to Navigate to the Parent Use the ‘..‘!
So Back to the root with:
(It’s like to say: ‘One Step Back and then One Step Back’ again)
Finally to Return Home is simple as:
Hey Congratulations! You achieved the First Walk into the Linux Directory Tree :)
Most noteworthy: the Main Linux Shell Commands are simple Abbreviations of the Corresponding World.
Furthermore about Linux Terminology, there are 3 different Entities Appelled as ‘Root’:
- The System’s root: /
- The root Directory: /root
- The root User: the SuperAdmin than can Execute Any Command
Again experiment yours Creative powers
Making a test Directory like:
* See how ‘mkdir‘ is an Abbreviation of ‘making directory‘ *
How you should have already understood, $HOME and ‘~‘ are both synonymous of your’s Home Folder.
And the Home Directory is where your’s User Contents are Stored by Default.
Moreover, to enhance your Memorization and Fun I rightly Use some Metaphoric term. So here you can Immagine a directory like a Room into your Home :)
Try Making Multiple Directories at once with:
mkdir $HOME/bedroom $HOME/bathroom $HOME/garden
Finally use the ‘touch‘ Command to Make a New Empty File:
And how you could already have perceived I Make Use Here of the following Mnemonic Linking:
- Directory -> Spatial Entity
- File -> Thing
And so in the Previous Command to an ‘Empty File’ corresponds an ‘Empty Thing’ like a ‘box’ ;)
Experiment How to Copy Directories and Files
- To Copy a Single File:
* As in the other cases here ‘cp‘ is the Abbreviation for ‘copying‘ *
cp $HOME/livingroom/box $HOME/bedroom/
You see how in this Example we moved our ‘box’ from the ‘livingroom’ to the ‘bedroom’ :)
Now verify the correctness of the operation Listing your’s bedroom contents:
And the Output will exactly display as:
- Now for Instance to Copy a Single Directory inside to another do:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/garden
List the ‘garden’ contents:
And you’ll Find:
Now you have also a ‘livingroom’ copy into your ‘garden’ O:
Moreover to Copy-Duplicate-Rename a Directory:
First to be sure you are again into the $HOME area:
And then Make a newly duplicated room do:
cp -r ./livingroom ./room
Finally, to Copy-Displace-Rename at the same time:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/bedroom/wardrobe
But this is Magically Crazy, we have trasformed our ‘livingroom’ into a ‘wardrobe’ inside to the ‘bedroom’ :))
Next Experiments the Dynamics of Files and Directories
And in this Moving dimension Files or Directories are taken as the Same.
* Again you find here the ‘mv‘ Command as a Contraction of ‘moving‘ *
So now for instance Make and Empty ‘bottle’:
And then we Displace it in another Room:
mv ~/livingroom/bottle ~/bedroom/
Then verify Listing the ‘bedroom’ contents:
And what you Find? The:
Also if only an empty one, sorry :))
Again you can Move & Rename at the same time like:
mv ~/bedroom/bottle ~/bathroom/can
Here we have magically trasformed an empty ‘bottle’ inside the ‘bedroom’ in an empty ‘can’ inside to the ‘bathroom’.
And as I said in the introduction the Command for Directories works the Same!
So now ‘Like Alice in the Wonderland’ we Move the Directory ‘livingroom’ we set into the ‘garden’ in a ‘teapot’ in the bedroom!
mv ~/garden/livingroom ~/bedroom/teapot
Patiently Verify it with:
Finding What? An:
Finally we try investigating our Magical Destroying Powers
Deleting Directories and Files!
Especially Releant: in Normal Activity you should Triple Check the Commands Before Execution…
As in Shell there’s Not a Trash Bin and so the stuff is directly Annihilated!!!
* As in all other cases also ‘removing‘ is here Abreviated by ‘rm‘ *
How Removing Files
First we Wipe Out the ‘box’ in the ‘livingroom’ with:
Check it with:
Now we try the same for Multiple Entities…
First we Make a Copy of the ‘can’ into then ‘bathroom’ in a ‘jar’ into the ‘bedroom’, always Magics Here ;) with:
cp $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
And then how to Liquidate Both? Simply like that:
rm $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
How Removing Directories
Now we Start to Hollow our beautiful Home… ((:
First we Raze the ‘livingroom’:
rm -rf $HOME/livingroom
And finally we Desert All the Remaining Spaces:
rm -rf ~/bathroom ~/bedroom ~/garden
Sorry, we Transformed our Home into a Blank Space, but What a Fun! :))
Last How-to Get the Admin Super-Powers
To Login as SuperUser:
If Got “User is Not in Sudoers file” then Look: Solution
Then to Logout:
(To Protect Your System from the possible Damages of an Hazardous ‘Crazy’ Command Execution the Logout ‘Should’ be Executed Every Time a Conscious and Meaningful Series of Commands has been Achieved… )
Finally to Execute a Single Command as SuperUser:
su -c 'myCommand'
See Further Howto Getting-Started Installing Debian Packages
Congratulations You are now fully Initiated to the awesome Linux Debian Command Line Shell. ;)