Elementary OS Terminal Tutorial for Beginners
You are Welcome! The Tutorial Presents You a Step-by-Step Elementary OS Terminal Tutorial for Beginners.
And with this Command Line Elementary OS Tutorial for Beginners You Can Get Easily Initiated to Make the First, Steps on the Linux Shell :)
Furthermore, this is Just a ‘Quick and Dirty’ Introduction to the Command Line Basics by Example for the Bash Shell.
Now I Recommend you to ‘Take it Easy‘ and keep on experimenting because only ‘Practice Makes the Master‘ ;)
Most noteworthy: it’s fundamental you ‘Get Your Hands Dirty‘ following along this guide and Execute the Commands as they are harmless for your System.
Especially Relevant is how we’ll Get also some Fun in Discovering togheter some Magical Naming Powers of the Linux Command Line.
Finally, the Commands here included are valid for the Default Linux Bash Shell and also for the Bourne, C, TC and Korn Shells…
1. Launching Terminal
Open a Terminal Shell emulator window
(Press “Enter” to Execute Commands)
Search into Apps.
Most noteworthy: the Main Linux Shell Commands are simple Abbreviations of the Corresponding World.
Now try to List the Directory’s Contents
To List the Directory you are in execute:
The ‘.’ is meaning This location.
* And see ‘ls‘ as an Abbreviation for ‘List‘ or ‘Listing‘ *
The Output on a New Terminal window should be very similar to this:
Desktop/ Downloads/ Pictures/ tmp/ Documents/ Music/ Templates/ Videos/
Here the Entities with a Trailing Slash are Directories.
Again execute to List the Downloads Folder on your Home:
Next to List the Main System’s Root Directory:
(The Root of What? Of the System’s Directory Tree.)
Furthermore, to List the usr Directory:
Finally, to List the Nested bin Directory into the usr one:
3. Changing Folder
Next practice the Change Directory directive
Change to the Root Directory:
* Again find out how ‘cd‘ is an Abridgement for ‘Change Directory‘ *
Then Go to /usr/bin:
Now to Navigate to the Parent Use the ‘..‘!
So Back to the root with:
(It’s like to say: ‘One Step Back and then One Step Back’ again)
Finally, to Return Home is simple as:
Then to Verify you are in that Location Use:
In this case ‘pwd’ is a Shortcut for ‘Print Working Directory‘.
Hey Congratulations! You achieved the First, Walk into the Linux Directory Tree :)
Furthermore, about Linux Terminology, there are 3 different Entities Appelled as ‘Root’:
- The System’s root: /
- The root Directory: /root
- The root User: the SuperAdmin than can Execute Any Command
4. Making Folders
Again experiment yours Creative powers
Making a test Directory like:
* See here again how ‘mkdir‘ is an Abbreviation for ‘Make Directory‘ *.
How you should have already understood, $HOME and ‘~‘ are both synonymous of your’s Home Folder.
And the Home Directory is where your User Contents are Stored by Default.
Moreover, to enhance your Memorization and Fun I rightly Use some Metaphoric term. So here you can Immagine a directory like a Room into your Home :)
Try Making Multiple Directories at once with:
mkdir $HOME/bedroom $HOME/bathroom $HOME/garden
Finally, use the ‘touch‘ Command to Make a New Empty File:
And how you could already have perceived I Make Use Here of the following Mnemonic Linking:
Directory -> Spatial Entity
File -> Thing
And so in the Previous Command to an ‘Empty File’ corresponds an ‘Empty Thing’ like a ‘box’ ;)
5. Copying Stuff
Experiment How to Copy Directories and Files.
To Copy a Single File:
* As in the other cases here ‘cp‘ is the Abbreviation for ‘Copy‘ *
cp $HOME/livingroom/box $HOME/bedroom/
You see how in this Example we moved our ‘box’ from the ‘livingroom’ to the ‘bedroom’ :)
Now verify the correctness of the operation Listing your’s bedroom contents:
And the Output will exactly display as:
Now for Instance to Copy a Single Directory inside to another do:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/garden
List the ‘garden’ contents:
And you’ll Find:
Now you have also a ‘livingroom’ copy into your ‘garden’ O:
Moreover to Copy-Duplicate-Rename a Directory:
First, to be sure you are again into the $HOME area:
And then Make a newly duplicated room do:
cp -r ./livingroom ./room
Finally, to Copy-Displace-Rename at the same time:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/bedroom/wardrobe
But this is Magically Crazy, we have trasformed our ‘livingroom’ into a ‘wardrobe’ inside to the ‘bedroom’ :))
6. Moving Stuff
Next Experiments the Dynamics of Files and Directories
And in this Moving dimension Files or Directories are taken as the Same.
* Again you find here the ‘mv‘ Command as a Contraction of ‘Move‘ *
So now for instance Make and Empty ‘bottle’:
And then we Displace it in another Room:
mv ~/livingroom/bottle ~/bedroom/
Then verify Listing the ‘bedroom’ contents:
And what you Find? The:
Also if only an empty one, sorry :))
Again you can Move & Rename at the same time like:
mv ~/bedroom/bottle ~/bathroom/can
Here we have magically trasformed an empty ‘bottle’ inside the ‘bedroom’ in an empty ‘can’ inside to the ‘bathroom’.
And as I said in the introduction the Command for Directories works the Same!
So now ‘Like Alice in the Wonderland’ we Move the Directory ‘livingroom’ we set into the ‘garden’ in a ‘teapot’ in the bedroom!
mv ~/garden/livingroom ~/bedroom/teapot
Patiently Verify it with:
Simple :) An Empty Space!
Finally, we try investigating our Magical Destroying Powers
Deleting Directories and Files!
Especially Releant: in Normal Activity you should Triple Check the Commands Before Execution…
As in Shell there’s Not a Trash Bin and so the stuff is directly Annihilated!!!
* As in all other cases also ‘Remove‘ is here Abreviated by ‘rm‘ *
How Removing Files.
First, we Wipe Out the ‘box’ in the ‘livingroom’ with:
Check it with:
Now we try the same for Multiple Entities…
First, we Make a Copy of the ‘can’ into then ‘bathroom’ in a ‘jar’ into the ‘bedroom’, always Magics Here ;) with:
cp $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
And then how to Liquidate Both? Simply like that:
rm $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
How Removing Directories.
Now we Start to Hollow our beautiful Home… ((:
First, we Raze the ‘livingroom’:
rm -rf $HOME/livingroom
And finally we Desert All the Remaining Spaces:
rm -rf ~/bathroom ~/bedroom ~/garden
Sorry, we Transformed our Home into a Blank Space, but What a Fun! :))
8. Getting Admin Power
Last How to Get the Admin Super-Powers.
To Login as SuperUser:
If Got “User is Not in Sudoers file” then see: How to Enable sudo
Then to Logout:
(To Protect Your System from the potential Damages of an Hazardous ‘Crazy’ Command Execution the Logout ‘Should’ be Executed Every Time a Conscious and Meaningful Series of Commands has been Achieved… )
Finally, to Execute a Single Command as SuperUser:
sudo su -c 'myCommand'
How to Set Permissions on Elementary OS File SystemElementary OS Permissions Quick Start
Congratulations You are now Initiated to the awesome Linux Elementary OS Command Line Shell. ;)
Elementary OS Best Software:
Best Software to Install on Elementary OS.
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