Shell Command-Line/Console/Terminal Quick-Start for Debian 7 Wheezy Easy Guide

October 17th, 2014 by thelinuxevangelist

Getting-Started with Command Line on Debian Linux

The Linux Tutorial Shows You How-to Quick-Start with the Command Line Console Terminal for Debian 7 Wheezy Linux.

This is Just a ‘Quick and Dirty’ Introduction to the Command Line Basics by Example on Linux Command Line Console Terminal.

The Tutorial is Step-by-Step and You Can Just Getting-Started Following and Executing each Command without any Harm for Your System :)

After all only ‘Practice Makes the Master‘; so Do Not try to Getting-Started too Hard but Just ‘Take it Easy!‘ ;)

The Commands are Intended for Execution the Default Bash Linux Shell but Most should Works also for the Bourne, C, TC and Korn Shells…

Debian Linux Command Line Console Terminal Quick-Start - Featured
  1. First Open a Command Line Terminal Console Window
    Cmd/Win & Search for “term”
    (Press “Enter” to Execute Commands)

    Linux Command Line Console Terminal Quick-Start for Debian - Debian Gnome3 Open Terminal
    Debian 7 Wheezy Command Line Quick-Start - Debian KDE Open Terminal
    Getting-Started with Command Line Console on Debian Wheezy 7 - Debian Lxde Open Terminal
    Getting-Started Command Line Terminal for Debian Linux 7 Wheezy - Debian Xfce Open Terminal

    Or Login into Server Shell…

  2. To List a Directory Content (Directories and Files included)

    ls /[path]

    For Example to List the Content of the Root Directory:

    ls /

    Or to List the Content of the Home Directory:

    ls $HOME
  3. Next practice the Change of Directory
    Change to the root:

    cd /

    * Again find out how ‘cd‘ in an Abridgement of ‘change directory’ *
    Then Go to the /usr/bin:

    cd /usr/bin

    Now to Navigate to the Parent use the ‘..’
    So Back to the root with:

    cd ../..

    (It’s like to say: ‘One Step Back and then One Step Back’ again)
    Finally to Return Home simply use:


    Hey Congratulations, you achieved the First Walk into the Linux Directory Tree :)

  4. Again experiment the Creative powers
    With a test Directory like:

    mkdir $HOME/livingroom

    * See how ‘mkdir‘ is an Abbreviation of ‘make directory’ *

    How you should have already understood, $HOME and ‘~‘ are both synonymous of your’s Home Folder.
    And the Home Directory is where your’s User Contents are Stored by Default.

    Moreover, to enhance your Memorization and Fun I rightly Use some Metaphoric term. So here you can Immagine a directory like a Room into your Home :)

    Try to Make Multiple Directories at once with:

    mkdir $HOME/bedroom $HOME/bathroom $HOME/garden

    Finally use the ‘touch’ directive to Make a New empty File:

    touch $HOME/livingroom/box

    And how you should already perceive I make use the following Mnemonic structure:

    • Directory -> Space
    • File -> Thing
      And so like here above to an ‘Empty File’ corresponds an ‘Empty Thing’ like a box ;)
  5. Experiment How to Copy Directories and Files

    • To Copy a Single File:
      * As in the other cases here ‘cp‘ is the Abbreviation for Copy *

      cp $HOME/livingroom/box $HOME/bedroom/

      You see how in this Example we moved our ‘box’ from the ‘livingroom’ to the ‘bedroom’ :)

      Now verify the correctness of the operation listing your’s bedroom contents:

      ls $HOME/bedroom/

      And the output will be correctly displayed as:

    • Now for Instance to Copy a Single Directory inside to another do:
      cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/garden

      List the ‘garden’ contents:

      ls $HOME/garden

      And you’ll find:


      Now you have also a ‘livingroom’ copy into your ‘garden’ O:

      Moreover to Copy-Duplicate-Rename the same directory in the same location:

      First to be sure you are again into the $HOME area:


      And then Make a newly duplicated room do:

      cp -r ./livingroom ./room

      Finally, to Copy-Displace-Rename at the same time:

      cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/bedroom/wardrobe

      But this is magically crazy, we have trasformed our ‘livingroom’ into a ‘wardrobe’ inside to the ‘bedroom’ :))

  6. Next Experiments with Dynamics of Files and Directories
    And in this Moving dimension Files or Directories are taken as the Same…
    So now we make an empty ‘bottle’:

    touch ~/livingroom/bottle

    And then we displace it in another room:

    mv ~/livingroom/bottle ~/bedroom/

    Then verify Listing the ‘bedroom’ contents:

    ls ~/bedroom/

    And what you find? The:


    Also if only an empty one, sorry :))

    Again you can Move and Rename at the same time like:

    mv ~/bedroom/bottle ~/bathroom/can

    Here we have magically trasformed an empty ‘bottle’ inside the ‘bedroom’ in an empty ‘can’ inside to the ‘bathroom’.
    As I said in the introduction for directories the Command works the same…
    So now ‘Like Alice in the Wonderland’ we Move the ‘livingroom’ we set into the ‘garden’ in a ‘teapot’ in the bedroom!

    mv ~/garden/livingroom ~/bedroom/teapot

    Patiently verify it with:

    ls ~/bedroom/teapot

    Finding What? A:


    Bur unfortunately it’s empty again :(

  7. Finally we try investigating our Magical Destroying Powers
    Deleting Directories and Files!

    Especially Releant: in Normal Activity you should Triple Check the Commands Before Execution…
    As in Shell there’s Not a Trash Bin and so the stuff is directly Annihilated!!!

    * As in all other cases also ‘remove’ is here Abreviated by ‘rm‘ *

    • How Removing Files

      First we Wipe Out the ‘box’ in the ‘livingroom’ with:

      rm $HOME/livingroom/box

      Check it with:

      ls $HOME/livingroom/

      Now we try the same for multiple entities…
      First we make a copy of the ‘teapot’ into a ‘jar’ with:

      cp $HOME/bedroom/teapot $HOME/bedroom/jar

      And then how to liquidate both? Simple like that:

      rm $HOME/bedroom/teapot $HOME/bedroom/jar
    • How Removing Directories

      Now we Start to Hollow our beautiful Home…
      First we Raze the ‘livingroom’:

      rm -rf $HOME/livingroom

      And finally we Desert all the remaining:

      rm -rf ~/bathroom ~/bedroom ~/garden

    Sorry, now we are Homeless, but What a Fun! :))

  8. Last How-to Get the Admin Super-Powers

    To Login as SuperUser:


    If Got “User is Not in Sudoers file” then Look: Solution

    Then to Logout:


    (To Protect Your System from the possible Damages of an Hazardous ‘Crazy’ Command Execution the Logout ‘Should’ be Executed Every Time a Conscious and Meaningful Series of Commands has been Achieved… )
    Finally to Execute a Single Command as SuperUser:

    su -c 'myCommand'


    sudo myCommand
  9. How-to Set Permissions on Debian File System:

    Debian Permissions Quick-Start
  10. Here is achieved the ‘Quick&Dirty’ Initiation to the Debian Linux Command Line Sphere :)
    I’ll be Back Very Soon to Show the Basics of the Apt Software Packages and Repository Administration Commands!

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