Getting-Started with Command Line on Debian Linux
The Linux Tutorial Shows You How-to Quick-Start with the Command Line Console Terminal for Debian 7 Wheezy Linux.
This is Just a ‘Quick and Dirty’ Introduction to the Command Line Basics by Example on Linux Command Line Console Terminal.
The Tutorial is Step-by-Step and You Can Just Getting-Started Following and Executing each Command without any Harm for Your System :)
After all only ‘Practice Makes the Master‘; so Do Not try to Getting-Started too Hard but Just ‘Take it Easy!‘ ;)
The Commands are Intended for Execution the Default Bash Linux Shell but Most should Works also for the Bourne, C, TC and Korn Shells…
First Open a Command Line Terminal Console Window
Cmd/Win & Search for “term”
(Press “Enter” to Execute Commands)Gnome:
Or Login into Server Shell…
To List a Directory Content (Directories and Files included)
For Example to List the Content of the Root Directory:
Or to List the Content of the Home Directory:
Next practice the Change of Directory
Change to the Root Directory:
* Again find out how ‘cd‘ is an Abridgement of ‘changing directory‘ *
Then Go to /usr/bin:
Now to Navigate to the Parent Use the ‘..‘!
So Back to the root with:
(It’s like to say: ‘One Step Back and then One Step Back’ again)
Finally to Return Home is simple as:
Hey Congratulations! You achieved the First Walk into the Linux Directory Tree :)
Furthermore about Linux Terminology, there are 3 different Entities Appelled as ‘Root’:
- The System’s root: /
- The root Directory: /root
- The root User: the SuperAdmin than can Execute Any Command
Again experiment the Creative powers
With a test Directory like:
* See how ‘mkdir‘ is an Abbreviation of ‘making directory‘ *
How you should have already understood, $HOME and ‘~‘ are both synonymous of your’s Home Folder.
And the Home Directory is where your’s User Contents are Stored by Default.
Moreover, to enhance your Memorization and Fun I rightly Use some Metaphoric term. So here you can Immagine a directory like a Room into your Home :)
Try Making Multiple Directories at once with:
mkdir $HOME/bedroom $HOME/bathroom $HOME/garden
Finally use the ‘touch‘ Command to Make a New Empty File:
And how you could already have perceived I Make Use Here of the following Mnemonic Linking:
- Directory -> Spatial Entity
- File -> Thing
And so in the Previous Command to an ‘Empty File’ corresponds an ‘Empty Thing’ like a ‘box’ ;)
Experiment How to Copy Directories and Files
- To Copy a Single File:
* As in the other cases here ‘cp‘ is the Abbreviation for ‘copying‘ *
cp $HOME/livingroom/box $HOME/bedroom/
You see how in this Example we moved our ‘box’ from the ‘livingroom’ to the ‘bedroom’ :)
Now verify the correctness of the operation Listing your’s bedroom contents:
And the Output will exactly display as:
- Now for Instance to Copy a Single Directory inside to another do:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/garden
List the ‘garden’ contents:
And you’ll Find:
Now you have also a ‘livingroom’ copy into your ‘garden’ O:
Moreover to Copy-Duplicate-Rename a Directory:
First to be sure you are again into the $HOME area:
And then Make a newly duplicated room do:
cp -r ./livingroom ./room
Finally, to Copy-Displace-Rename at the same time:
cp -r $HOME/livingroom $HOME/bedroom/wardrobe
But this is Magically Crazy, we have trasformed our ‘livingroom’ into a ‘wardrobe’ inside to the ‘bedroom’ :))
Next Experiments the Dynamics of Files and Directories
And in this Moving dimension Files or Directories are taken as the Same.
* Again you find here the ‘mv‘ Command as a Contraction of ‘moving‘ *
So now for instance Make and Empty ‘bottle’:
And then we Displace it in another Room:
mv ~/livingroom/bottle ~/bedroom/
Then verify Listing the ‘bedroom’ contents:
And what you Find? The:
Also if only an empty one, sorry :))
Again you can Move & Rename at the same time like:
mv ~/bedroom/bottle ~/bathroom/can
Here we have magically trasformed an empty ‘bottle’ inside the ‘bedroom’ in an empty ‘can’ inside to the ‘bathroom’.
And as I said in the introduction the Command for Directories works the Same!
So now ‘Like Alice in the Wonderland’ we Move the Directory ‘livingroom’ we set into the ‘garden’ in a ‘teapot’ in the bedroom!
mv ~/garden/livingroom ~/bedroom/teapot
Patiently Verify it with:
Finding What? An:
Finally we try investigating our Magical Destroying Powers
Deleting Directories and Files!
Especially Releant: in Normal Activity you should Triple Check the Commands Before Execution…
As in Shell there’s Not a Trash Bin and so the stuff is directly Annihilated!!!
* As in all other cases also ‘removing‘ is here Abreviated by ‘rm‘ *
How Removing Files
First we Wipe Out the ‘box’ in the ‘livingroom’ with:
Check it with:
Now we try the same for Multiple Entities…
First we Make a Copy of the ‘can’ into then ‘bathroom’ in a ‘jar’ into the ‘bedroom’, always Magics Here ;) with:
cp $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
And then how to Liquidate Both? Simply like that:
rm $HOME/bathroom/can $HOME/bedroom/jar
How Removing Directories
Now we Start to Hollow our beautiful Home… ((:
First we Raze the ‘livingroom’:
rm -rf $HOME/livingroom
And finally we Desert All the Remaining Spaces:
rm -rf ~/bathroom ~/bedroom ~/garden
Sorry, we Transformed our Home into a Blank Space, but What a Fun! :))
Last How-to Get the Admin Super-Powers
To Login as SuperUser:
If Got “User is Not in Sudoers file” then Look: Solution
Then to Logout:
(To Protect Your System from the possible Damages of an Hazardous ‘Crazy’ Command Execution the Logout ‘Should’ be Executed Every Time a Conscious and Meaningful Series of Commands has been Achieved… )
Finally to Execute a Single Command as SuperUser:
su -c 'myCommand'
How-to Set Permissions on Debian File System:
Here is achieved the ‘Quick&Dirty’ Initiation to the Debian Linux Command Line Sphere :)
I’ll be Back Very Soon to Show the Basics of the Apt Software Packages and Repository Administration Commands!